Major Eye Diseases


What is cataract?
Your eyes have a crystalline lens which is normally transparent and helps to focus light on your retina, which is like the "screen" we see in the movies.The lens is found inside a thin "bag" called the capsular bag. As age increases, some changes occur in the lens which cause it to lose its transparency and become opaque. This opacity is called cataract. Since it is opaque it can no longer allow light to pass through, and your vision blurs.

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Squint is a misalignment of the eyes where the 2 eyes are pointed towards different directions. The misalignment will be constant for a few, while it can be intermittently happening for some other people. The deviation of the eye can be in any of the direction – outward, inward, upward or downward. If the child is not treated at the correct time, a situation called amblyopia will occurs, which eventually may lead to the permanent loss of vision.

CAUSES OF SQUINT » Heredity : Eye muscles weakness or problem with the nerves in the eye muscles. Poor or Blurred vision which is caused because of cataract, refractive errors, corneal scars, glaucoma, retinal disease, optic nerve disease, tumors of the eye etc.
» Injuries

» Single eye or both of the eyes will point to different directions
» Children may have defective vision in single eye or both of the eyes
» Children along with squint, rarely close one eye in the bright sunlight
» Some of the children may turn their face or tilt their head in specific direction to use their eyes together
» Children rarely experience confusion or double vision

Squint will be diagnosed by an eye examination. It is recommended that all children should have their vision check up by their pediatrician, family doctor or ophthalmologist on or before their 4 years. If there is a family history of amblyopia or strabismus, an ophthalmologist will check the vision even before the age of 3 years. Young children usually have a wide, flat nose & folds of the skin at inner eyelid that will make the eyes appear as crossed. This appearance of the strabismus will reduce by the child age increases. A child may not outgrow true strabismus.

An ophthalmologist will generally explain the difference between the true & false strabismus.

Squint because of refractive errors was corrected by the prescribing suitable spectacles.


glaucoma treatmentWhat Is Glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a condition that causes damage to your eye's optic nerve and gets worse over time. It's often linked to a buildup of pressure inside your eye. Glaucoma tends to be inherited and may not show up until later in life. The increased pressure, called intraocular pressure, can damage the optic nerve, which transmits images to your brain. If the damage continues, glaucoma can lead to permanent vision loss. Without treatment, glaucoma can cause total permanent blindness within a few years. Most people with glaucoma have no early symptoms or pain. You need to see your eye doctor regularly so she can diagnose and treat glaucoma before long-term visual loss happens. If you’re over age 40 and have a family history of the disease, you should get a complete eye exam from an eye doctor every 1 to 2 years. If you have health problems like diabetes or a family history of glaucoma or are at risk for other eye diseases, you may need to go more often.

What Causes Glaucoma? 

t’s the result of high fluid pressure inside your eye. This happens when the liquid in the front part of the eye doesn't circulate the way it should. Normally, the fluid, called aqueous humor, flows out of your eye through a mesh-like channel. If this channel gets blocked, the liquid builds up. That’s what causes glaucoma. The reason for the blockage is unknown, but doctors do know it can be inherited, meaning it’s passed from parents to children. Less common causes include a blunt or chemical injury to your eye, severe eye infection, blocked blood vessels inside the eye, and inflammatory conditions. It’s rare, but sometimes eye surgery to correct another condition can bring it on. It usually affects both eyes, but it may be worse in one than the other. What Are the Types of Glaucoma? There are two main kinds: Open-angle glaucoma. It’s the most common type. Your doctor may also call it wide-angle glaucoma. The drain structure in your eye -- it’s called the trabecular meshwork -- looks normal, but fluid doesn’t flow out like it should. Angle-closure glaucoma. It’s less common in the West than in Asia. You may also hear it called acute or chronic angle-closure or narrow-angle glaucoma. Your eye doesn’t drain right because the angle between your iris and cornea is too narrow. Your iris is in the way. This can cause a sudden buildup of pressure in your eye. It’s also linked to farsightedness and cataracts, a clouding of the lens inside your eye.

What Are the Symptoms? 

Most people don’t have any. The first sign is often a loss of peripheral, or side, vision. That can go unnoticed until late in the disease. That’s why glaucoma is often called the "sneak thief of vision." Detecting glaucoma early is one reason you should have a complete exam with an eye specialist every 1 to 2 years. Occasionally, pressure inside the eye can rise to severe levels. In these cases, you may have sudden eye pain, headache, blurred vision, or the appearance of halos around lights.

How Is Glaucoma Treated?

Your doctor may use prescription eye drops, laser surgery, or microsurgery. Eye drops. These either reduce the formation of fluid in the eye or increase its outflow. Side effects may include allergies, redness, stinging, blurred vision, and irritated eyes. Some glaucoma drugs may affect your heart and lungs. Be sure to tell your doctor about any other medications you’re taking or are allergic to.

Retinopathy is the disease which damages the retina. Retina is the part located inside the eye which senses light. Different types of diseases may cause retinopathy. There will be complete or partial loss of vision. Retinopathy may develop suddenly or slowly, and can become better on its own or they may lead to permanent damage. Retina consists of many blood vessels. Abnormalities of these blood vessels is the major cause of the retinopathy.

There are many types of retinopathy, which includes:
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP): ROP may occur in some infants who are born prematurely or at low birth weight. When the child is born too early, retinal blood vessels won’t have time to finish growing properly. In the initial stages of ROP, there will be only subtle changes & no obvious symptoms. But in more advanced stages, the retina will become detached, which will cause blindness.
Diabetic retinopathy: Diabetic retinopathy develops in the people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. It will takes years to develop. 2 kinds of diabetic retinopathy has the potential to diminish the vision.

In non-proliferative retinopathy, blood vessels in the retina will deteriorate. Deteriorating blood vessels may become deformed or blocked. Fluids, fats & proteins will leak out from abnormal blood vessels. Fluid gets collect in the retina. This swelling impairs the sharp vision.

In proliferative retinopathy, new, structurally unstable blood vessels will grow on the surface of the retina. This unstable blood vessels may cause frequent and minor bleeding. This bleeding may cause local irritation & scarring.

Hypertensive retinopathy: Hypertensive retinopathy may occur in the people who are suffering with high blood pressure. High blood pressure may causes blood vessel abnormalities. Abnormalities include thickening of small arteries, blockages of the retinal blood vessels & bleeding. Unexpected severe high blood pressure will cause swelling of optic nerve. People suffering with this disease may frequently have no symptoms in the initial stages. It will be discovered during the routine eye exam.

Central serous retinopathy: Central serous retinopathy starts for reasons which will not be well understood. In this condition, fluid accumulates in the membrane behind the retina. This fluid seeps in between the layers of retina & causes them to separate. This results in a blurred vision or poor night vision.

» Retinopathy of prematurity — There won’t be any outward physical signs. Only an experienced ophthalmologist will able to find out signs of this illness.

» Diabetic retinopathy — Symptoms will not be noticed till the late stages of the illness. Symptoms which include:

  • Blurred vision
  • Sudden loss of the vision in one or both eyes
  • Black spots
  • Flashing lights
  • Difficulty in reading or seeing detailed work
  • Hypertensive retinopathy — There won’t be usually any symptoms. Some people may complain of blurred vision.
  • Central serous retinopathy — Symptoms include:
  • Blurred or dim vision, rarely coming on suddenly
  • Blind spots
  • Distorted shapes
  • Reduced visual sharpness
  • Retinopathy of prematurity — An Ophthalmologist will examine the inside of the eye to see the abnormalities.
  • Diabetic retinopathy — An Ophthalmologist will examine the retina & inside of the eye using a lighted instrument known as an ophthalmoscope. A dye can be used to reveal the leaky blood vessels.
  • Hypertensive retinopathy — An Ophthalmologist will examine the eye with the help of an ophthalmoscope. He or she looks for white or pale areas of the retina. These areas were pale since they won’t get enough amount blood.
  • The doctor may also observe bleeding which was coming from the ruptured blood vessels or swelling of the retina or optic nerve.
  • Central serous retinopathy — A doctor or ophthalmologist uses an ophthalmoscope to detect fluid in between the layers of retina.
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