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Endophthalmitis is an inflammation that affects the internal coats of the eye. It is a possible complication of all the intraocular surgeries, especially cataract surgery, with possible loss of the vision & the eye itself. Infectious etiology is the most common cause of endophthalmitis. The other causes may include penetrating trauma & retained intraocular foreign bodies.


There is usually a history of recent intraocular operation or penetrating ocular trauma. In certain cases of endogenous endophthalmitis especially in immunocompromised patients or those with the diabetes the spread of infection can be hematogenous (via the blood-stream).


Endophthalmitis is generally associated with severe pain, loss of vision & redness of the conjunctiva & the underlying episclera. 


The patient needs an immediate eye examination by an ophthalmologist if possible a vitreo-retina specialist who will generally decide for the urgent intervention to provide the intravitreal injection of the potent antibiotics & also prepare for an immediate surgery (pars plana vitrectomy) as needed. Evisceration will be necessary if the condition is very severe.

Vitrectomy surgery, will help to manage the endophthalmitis by removing the infecting organisms & their toxins. At the end of surgery appropriate antibiotics are injected into the eye to contain the infection. The aim of treatment is to stop the infection and preserve the eyeball. Vision may or may not recover depending upon the extent of damage caused by the organism.

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