The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye which covers the iris (the colored part of the eye), pupil (the opening at the center of the eye), and anterior chamber (the fluid-filled inside of the eye). Collectively with the lens, the cornea refracts light, accounting roughly around 2/3rd of the total optical power of eye. In humans, the refractive power of the cornea was around 43 dioptres. The cornea's core and major function is to refract, or bend, light. The cornea is mostly responsible for focusing most of the light which enters the eye.Corneal Transplant Surgery

The cornea was composed of proteins & cells. It doesn’t consist of any blood vessels, unlike most of the tissues in the human body. Blood vessels cloud the cornea will prevent it from the refracting light properly & adversely, affect the vision.

Because there were no nutrient-supplying blood vessels in the cornea, tears & the aqueous humor (a watery fluid) in the anterior chamber will provide the cornea with the nutrients.

Corneal Layers:

There are five major layers in cornea they are:

  • Corneal epithelium
  • Bowman's layer
  • Corneal stroma
  • Descemet's membrane
  • Corneal endothelium

The outer layer, is the epithelium, it is a layer of the cells which covers the cornea. It will absorb the nutrients & oxygen from tears & convey it to the rest of the cornea. It also contain free nerve endings and also prevents foreign matter entering the eye.

Various refractive eye surgery procedures change the shape of the cornea to reduce the need for corrective lenses or otherwise improvement of the refractive state of eye.

The cornea tends to repair by itself rapidly from minor abrasions. Deeper abrasions cause scars to form on the cornea, which causes the cornea to lose its transparency; thereby it leads to visual impairment.

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